Using the WCS object

This section uses the imaging_wcs_wdist.asdf created in Adding distortion to the imaging example to read in a WCS object and demo its methods.

>>> import asdf
>>> asdf_file ="imaging_wcs_wdist.asdf")
>>> wcsobj = asdf_file.tree["wcs"]
>>> print(wcsobj)    
         From          Transform
----------------- ----------------
         detector       distortion
undistorted_frame linear_transform
             icrs             None

Inspecting Available Coordinate Frames

To see what frames are defined:

>>> print(wcsobj.available_frames)
['detector', 'undistorted_frame', 'icrs']
>>> wcsobj.input_frame
<Frame2D(name="detector", unit=(Unit("pix"), Unit("pix")), axes_names=('x', 'y'), axes_order=(0, 1))>
>>> wcsobj.output_frame
<CelestialFrame(name="icrs", unit=(Unit("deg"), Unit("deg")), axes_names=('lon', 'lat'), axes_order=(0, 1), reference_frame=<ICRS Frame>)>

Because the output_frame is a CoordinateFrame object we can get the result of the WCS transform as an SkyCoord object and transform them to other standard coordinate frames supported by astropy.coordinates.

>>> skycoord = wcsobj(1, 2, with_units=True)
>>> print(skycoord)
<SkyCoord (ICRS): (ra, dec) in deg
    (5.50090023, -72.04553535)>
>>> print(skycoord.transform_to("galactic"))
<SkyCoord (Galactic): (l, b) in deg
    (306.12713109, -44.8996588)>

Using Bounding Box

The WCS object has an attribute bounding_box (default value of None) which describes the range of acceptable values for each input axis.

>>> wcsobj.bounding_box = ((0, 2048), (0, 1000))
>>> wcsobj((2,3), (1020, 980))
[array([       nan, 5.54527989]), array([         nan, -72.06454341])]

The WCS object accepts a boolean flag called with_bounding_box with default value of True. Output values which are outside the bounding_box are set to NaN. There are cases when this is not desirable and with_bounding_box=False should be passes.

Calling the footprint() returns the footprint on the sky.

>>> wcsobj.footprint()

Manipulating Transforms

Some methods allow managing the transforms in a more detailed manner.

Transforms between frames can be retrieved and evaluated separately.

>>> dist = wcsobj.get_transform('detector', 'undistorted_frame')
>>> dist(1, 2)    
(-292.4150238489997, -616.8680129899999)

Transforms in the pipeline can be replaced by new transforms.

>>> new_transform = models.Shift(1) & models.Shift(1.5) | distortion
>>> wcsobj.set_transform('detector', 'undistorted_frame', new_transform)
>>> wcsobj(1, 2)         
(5.501064280097802, -72.04557376712566)

A transform can be inserted before or after a frame in the pipeline.

>>> scale = models.Scale(2) & models.Scale(1)
>>> wcsobj.insert_transform('icrs', scale, after=False)
>>> wcsobj(1, 2)          
(11.002128560195604, -72.04557376712566)

Inverse Transformations

Often, it is useful to be able to compute inverse transformation that converts coordinates from the output frame back to the coordinates in the input frame.

In this section, for illustration purpose, we will be using the same 2D imaging WCS from imaging_wcs_wdist.asdf created in Adding distortion to the imaging example whose forward transformation converts image coordinates to world coordinates and inverse transformation converts world coordinates back to image coordinates.

>>> wcsobj ='imaging_wcs_wdist.asdf')).tree['wcs']

The most general method available for computing inverse coordinate transformation is the WCS.invert() method. This method uses automatic or user-supplied analytical inverses whenever available to convert coordinates from the output frame to the input frame. When analytical inverse is not available as is the case for the wcsobj above, a numerical solution will be attempted using WCS.numerical_inverse().

Default parameters used by WCS.numerical_inverse() or WCS.invert() methods should be acceptable in most situations:

>>> world = wcsobj(350, 200)
>>> print(wcsobj.invert(*world))  # convert a single point
(349.9999994163172, 200.00000017679295)
>>> world = wcsobj([2, 350, -5000], [2, 200, 6000])
>>> print(wcsobj.invert(*world))  # convert multiple points at once
(array([ 2.00000000e+00,  3.49999999e+02, -5.00000000e+03]), array([1.99999972e+00, 2.00000002e+02, 6.00000000e+03])

By default, parameter quiet is set to True in WCS.numerical_inverse() and so it will return results “as is” without warning us about possible loss of accuracy or about divergence of the iterative process.

In order to catch these kind of errors that can occur during numerical inversion, we need to turn off quiet mode and be prepared to catch gwcs.wcs.WCS.NoConvergence exceptions. In the next example, let’s also add a point far away from the image for which numerical inverse fails.

>>> from gwcs import NoConvergence
>>> world = wcsobj([-85000, 2, 350, 3333, -5000], [-55000, 2, 200, 1111, 6000],
...                with_bounding_box=False)
>>> try:
...     x, y = wcsobj.invert(*world, quiet=False, maxiter=40,
...                          detect_divergence=True, with_bounding_box=False)
... except NoConvergence as e:
...     print(f"Indices of diverging points: {e.divergent}")
...     print(f"Indices of poorly converging points: {e.slow_conv}")
...     print(f"Best solution:\n{e.best_solution}")
...     print(f"Achieved accuracy:\n{e.accuracy}")
Indices of diverging points: [0]
Indices of poorly converging points: [4]
Best solution:
[[ 1.38600585e+11  6.77595594e+11]
 [ 2.00000000e+00  1.99999972e+00]
 [ 3.49999999e+02  2.00000002e+02]
 [ 3.33300000e+03  1.11100000e+03]
 [-4.99999985e+03  5.99999985e+03]]
Achieved accuracy:
[[8.56497375e+02 5.09216089e+03]
 [6.57962988e-06 3.70445289e-07]
 [5.31656943e-06 2.72052603e-10]
 [6.81557583e-06 1.06560533e-06]
 [3.96365344e-04 6.41822468e-05]]